Pre-menstrual syndrome

PMS is a collection of recurring symptoms that occur between ovulation and menstruation. Physical indicators, such as hormonal and metabolic changes, as well as psychological and emotional ones, might be seen.

Premenstrual syndrome is distinguished from other disorder by its recurrent nature. Women who suffer from it invariably have it before menstruation: symptoms arise one to 14 days before menstruation, diminishing with the arrival of the period or shortly thereafter, and patients usually feel well during the rest of the cycle.

This disorder affects the routine and quality of life of the woman who has it, as well as her job life and interpersonal connections, to varied degrees. Despite this, women themselves and, on occasion, health professionals have trivialized the condition. Despite the fact that it is a gynecological condition, the few research that have been done so far have mostly come from psychiatry.

Causes of premenstrual syndrome

Although no particular explanation for PMS has been established, it is known that hormonal fluctuations induce the characteristic symptoms, and there are various theories to explain why: perhaps PMS is caused by a mix of physical, psychological, and social variables interacting with everyday life events. It's also likely that its cause is an aberrant reaction of the body to normal levels of ovarian hormones, resulting in a shift in the balance of neurotransmitters (such as serotonin and beta-endorphin) generated in the brain, which are responsible for mood swings. Cultural, psychological, and sociological explanations, as well as dietary changes, have all been examined.

As a result, we can concluded that premenstrual syndrome is associated with the following factors

  • Hereditary or genetic. According to studies, this disorder is more common in women whose moms had it as well.
  • Emotional, psychological, and psycho-affective. Emotional issues and high stress levels appear to exacerbate the symptoms. Possible mood disorders, anxiety levels, and a history of depression in the woman's family all play a part.
  • Nutritional. It's possible that PMS is connected to vitamin B6, essential fatty acids, trace elements, or hypoglycemia, however this hasn't been established.


Women experience anxiety, increased emotional sensitivity, symptoms of depression, or even general malaise seven to ten days before menstruation. The most common are as follows:

Physical changes:

  • Chest tightness.
  • Swelling of the face, hands or abdomen.
  • Acne (due to increased oil in the skin).
  • Greasy hair.
  • Headache.
  • Increased appetite, especially with cravings for sweets.
  • Constipation or diarrhea.
  • Changes in the rhythm of sleep.
  • Palpitations.

Psychological changes:

  • Feeling of sadness.
  • Tiredness, fatigue.
  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Anxiety.
  • Irritability.

Symptoms vary in form and degree from one woman to the next and from one cycle to the next, ranging from mild to severe.

How is PMS diagnosed?

The diagnosis of PMS is based on the patient's report of symptoms. Menstruation is used by women as a timer, and painful events are linked to this identifiable signal. If a woman believes she is suffering from this disorder, it is recommended that she keep a diary of the symptoms she has, their duration, their intensity, the sensations she experiences and the effects they have on her daily life. These descriptions, which should cover at least two cycles, will be taken into account by the physician.